A nipple or areola reduction can be performed if nipples are too large, hanging, or over- projecting. It is not recommended in women who plan on breastfeeding.
Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and/ or areola ( HNA) is defined as excessive keratinization of the nipple and/ or areola.
Hyperkeratosis of the nipple. For women who undergo a mastectomy and breast reconstruction following cancer, the final step of the surgical process is often nipple. Nipple reconstruction is an optional procedure that takes place after reconstruction.